As World Cup fever sets in, increased hooliganism and soccer (football) related violence are legitimate international concerns. Previous research has linked sports-related hooliganism to ‘social maladjustment’ e.g. previous episodes of violence or dysfunctional behavior at home, work or school etc. However, social bonding and a desire to protect and defend other fans may be one of the main motivations not only for football hooliganism, but extremist group behavior in general, according to new research.
Social bonding key cause of soccer (football) violence